CEPII, Recherche et Expertise sur l'economie mondiale


For any pair of countries, from 1948 to 2020, Gravity provides all the information required to estimate gravity equations: trade flows, geographical distances, trade facilitation measures, macroeconomic indicators, etc...

Please review the documentation. If you have any remaining questions, issues, or concerns about the data, contact us.

Reference document to cite: Head, K. and T. Mayer, (2014), "Gravity Equations: Toolkit, Cookbook, Workhorse". Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 4, eds. Gopinath, Helpman, and Rogoff, Elsevier. 

Person in charge & contact: Pierre Cotterlaz, gravitycepii.fr

Licence: Etalab 2.0


Last update: March 16th, 2022.

This is the 202202 version.

Available in csv, rds (R) or dta (Stata) format:

- R
- Stata


Gravity is obtained by assembling data from institutional sources or from academic researchers.

The database gathers:

- Bilateral trade flows, from three distinct sources : IMF (DOTS), the UN (Comtrade) and the BACI database from CEPII.

- Geographical distance, including distances that reflect the within-country spatial distribution of activity.

- Trade facilitation measures : GATT/WTO membership, existence of trade agreements and nature of these agreements.

- Proxies for cultural proximity : language, religion, origins of the legal system, colonial ties, etc.

- Macroeconomic indicators : GDP, population, etc.

Additionnal distance measures are available on Julian Hinz website.

February 2021 (version 202102):

- R
- Stata

October 2020 (version 202010):

- R
- Stata

2015 version:

- Full data
- Lighter version